Terminology

On this web site we are using specific terms, some of which might be unclear to the non-technical reader. Sorry, but there is no way around calling things by their real precise name - and we believe that there is nothing wrong about this as long as we explain what these terms really mean.

This is why we explain these terms on this page.

A|B|C|D|E|F|G|H|I|J|K|L|M|N|O|P|Q|R|S|T|U|V|W|X|Y|Z

abstract

A short summary of the essential content of a book, article, speech, report, dissertation, or other work of nonfiction which gives the main points in the same order as the original work, without claiming or possessing independent literary merit.

Align Left

(ragged right) Pertaining to copy which is aligned on the left margin. 2. (quad left) A code which directs preceding copy to be set flush against the left margin.

Align Right

(ragged left) Pertaining to copy which is aligned on right margin. 2. (quad right) A code which directs preceding copy to be set flush against the right margin.

Alignment

The positioning of text within the page margins. Alignment can be flush left, flush right, justified or centred. Flush left and flush right are sometimes referred to as left justified and right justified.

Alternate Characters

Multiple versions of different characters, usually in display type faces, to apply a greater variety or personality to the copy. This often refers to swash characters, which usually over- or under-hang adjacent characters with curve-like flourishes.

Ampersand

A symbol (&) meaning and. The ampersand was originally a ligature for et (the Latin word for and), expressed as et per se, which gradually evolved to its present form.

ancestor genealogy

In object-oriented software development creating classes in a genealogy (inheritance) tree has been common practice for almost two decades. Children objects inherit attributes (descriptive data) and behavior (code) from their mother and grandmothers over several inheritance levels. This is a key internal feature of every Java or Smalltalk and many C++ applications. It's just state-of-the-art! This important feature been bot yet been used for application data, although this would substantially ease the creation and maintenance of complex data structures as used in a publishing system. And it would show the entire system much better and clearer arranged.

Elepub and Elestore are the first software products offering full data inheritance via a multi-level inheritance tree for your application data.

Annotation

A brief note (usually no longer than two or three sentences) accompanying a reference or citation in a bibliography which describes or explains the scope and content of the work cited. In a critical annotation, the commentary is evaluative.

ANSI

The acronym for American National Standards Institute. Co-ordinates the process through which formal standards are written.

Anthology

A collection of extracts from the works of various authors, selected by an editor and sometimes limited to a specific literary form or genre such as short stories, poems, or plays, or to a specific subject or time period. The works included are listed in the table of contents at the beginning of a collected work. Compare with compilation. See also: analytics and analytical entry.

Article

A self-contained prose composition, usually entirely nonfiction, written on a specific topic or subject by one or more authors and published under a separate title in a collected work, or in periodical containing other works of the same form.

Ascender

That portion of a lower case letter that rises above the letters x-height.

ASCII

The acronym for American Standard Code for Information Interchange. A standard method for computer coding of text using 8 bits per character.

Author

The writer of a book, essay, story, play, poem, etc. Some books have two or more joint authors. In most library catalogs, the term author is used in its broadest sense to include joint author, editor, playwright, director, composer, performer, artist, creator, etc.

Back issue

Any issue of a periodical that precedes the current issue. The back issues of a periodical are usually organized in a back file. Synonymous with back number.

Base line

The imaginary line on which characters appear to rest in a line of type. Some characters drop somewhat below it for better visual base alignment.

Bibliography

A list of sources cited or references for further reading, printed at the end of an article or may be published separately in book form.

Bit

A binary digit which is either on or off. The basic unit of digital information.

Bit Map

An array of pixels making up an image for screen display or device output. Also referred to as a `paint-type' graphic.

Body

The main section of a book, brochure, article, or other text material.

Body Size

The depth of the characters being typeset. Can be different to type face size.

Body Text

The type style used in the main text of a book, article, or other printed piece. Body type comes in sizes of 14-pts and smaller. Also referred to as Body Type.

Bold Type

A generic description of type that is heavier than the text type with which it is used.

Boolean

A field of mathematical logic developed in the mid-19th century by the English mathematician George Boole which allows a database searcher to combine concepts in a keywords search using three commands, also known as "operators": The OR command is used to expand or broaden search results by including synonyms and related terms. Search statement: violence or conflict or aggression. The AND command is used to narrow search results. Each time another concept is added using "and" the search becomes more specific. In some online catalogs and electronic databases, the "and" command is implicit (no need to type it in a keywords search). Search statement: violence and television The NOT command is used to exclude unwanted records from search results.

Bullet

A common pi character usually used to draw attention to listed items.

Byte

A unit of digital information consisting of 8 bits. Each ASCII text character is referenced by one byte of data. File sizes are typically measured in bytes, kilobytes (thousand bytes) or megabytes (million bytes).

Cap

A contraction of capital, meaning an upper case character.

Cap Height

The height of a point size from base line to the top of the upper case letter.

Cascading Style Sheets

A Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) specification developed by The World Wide Consortium (W3C) that allows authors of HTML documents and users to attach style sheets to HTML documents. The style sheets include typographical information on how the page should appear, such as the font of the text in the page.

CBT

Acronym for computer-based training. The use of computers and specially developed tutorial programs for teaching.

CCITT Group 4

A standard recommended by the Comité Consultatif International Télégraphique et Téléphonique, (International Telephone and Telegraph Consultative Committee) for the encoding and transmission of images. Group 4 supports images of up to 400 dots per inch (dpi); data compression based on a beginning row of white pixels (dots), with each succeeding line encoded as a series of changes from the line before, compressing images to 3 to 10 percent of the original.

CDF

CDF Catalog Data Format is a special intelligent data format used by our electronic product catalog Elecat to store, distribute and visualize pages of any kind, primarily product catalog pages, with many different types of data and links. CDF is an autonomous data format first introduces in January 1993 (and therefore older than PDF).

CDF is fully object-oriented and the technical basis of Elecat. It can store any data of data not matter how complex. Elecat's features many specia features and benefits could not be achieved with any other existing data format. One of the greatest specialities of CDF is the update system. CDF is capable of logically adding any number of changes, updates or additions to a CDF file, which only logically overwrites older data, which can still be restored if needed. It supports versioning and version history!

CD-ROM

Compact Disc Read Only Memory. A digitally mastered disc that contains information. The Corette Library has some databases and books available on CD-ROM.

Centred

Text placed at an equal distance from the left and right margins. Headlines are often centred. It is generally not good to mix centred text with flush left or flush right text.

CGI script

Short for Common Gateway Interface script. - An external application that is executed by an HTTP server machine in response to a request by a client such as a Web browser. The most commonly used language for CGI scripts is Perl, because it is a small but robust language. CGI scripts can also be written in C, C++ and Visual Basic.

CGM

- Acronym for Computer Graphics Metafile. CGM provides applications programmers with a standard means of describing a graphic as a set of instructions for re-creating it. Used mostly for vector graphics, CGM offers the advantage of small file size and resolution independence, while not being tied to a specific software package or hardware platform.

Character

Any printable symbol, including letters of the alphabet, numbers, punctuation, and special symbols.

Character code

 In the context of modern computer operating systems, it is defined as a code with a meaning attached to it. For example, the decimal character code 97 represents the letter a. In most operating systems today, characters codes are represented by an 8-bit unit of data known as a byte.

Character encoding

 A table in a font or a computer operating system which maps characters codes to glyphs in a font.

Character mapping

 refer character encoding.

Characters per pica

 An exact measurement on the number of characters of a given type face in a given size that will fit in one pica. This is a measurement for the lower case alphabet. Used for all types of copy-fitting calculations.

CITATION

The information found in an index or catalog about a particular title. The citation may include the author, title of the article, title of the periodical, book title, publication date, publisher, volume number, issue number and page numbers.

Colour

Refer Typographic colour.

Composition

The process of assembling characters, words, lines, and paragraphs, or of formatting typeset text, graphics, or other images into blocks or pages for reproduction by printing.

Compositor

A person who sets type and performs any of the duties of Composition.

Condensed Type

A narrow type face having proportionally less character width than a normal face of the same height.

contents note

A note in a bibliographic record which lists all or a portion of the individual works contained in a book or other publication, whether they be chapters, essays, or anthologized works such as stories, poems, and/or plays.

Cookie

On the World Wide Web, a block of data that a Web server stores on the client system. when a user returns to the same Web site, the browser sends a copy of the cookie back to the server. Cookies are used to indentify users, to instruct the server to send a customized version of the requested Web page, to submit account information for the user, and for other administrative purposes.

Copy

The original material from which type will be set. May be handwritten, typewritten or on floppy disk.

Copyfitting

The process of adjusting the size and spacing of type to make it fit within a defined area of the page.

Copyright

The exclusive legal right granted by a government to an author, editor, composer, playwright, publisher, or distributor to publish, produce, sell, or distribute a literary, musical, dramatic, or artistic work, within certain limitations. Copyright law also governs the right to prepare derivative works, to reproduce a work or portions of it, and to display or perform a work in public. Such rights may be transferred or sold to others. A work never copyrighted or no longer protected by copyright is said to be in the public domain.

Database Publishing

The use of desktop publishing or Internet technology to produce pages or reports containing information obtained from a database. See the website www.elepub.com for further details.

Database

An electronic collection of information.

DCS

Desktop Colour Separation. A format for storing scanned images in 5 files; Four CMYK separation files and a fifth low-resolution file used for design and layout. The 4 master files are used for output separations. The fifth file, when placed on a program page, displays the contents of the master files.

Depth

The vertical measurement of a page, figure, table, or other block of material.

Descender

That portion of a character that extends below the base line of the character.

Dingbat

Type faces that consist of symbol characters such as decorations, arrows and bullets. Also known as Pi characters.

Display Type

Type faces, used for headlines and other attention-getting elements, as distinguished from body type. Display type starts at 14-pt upwards.

dpi

An abbreviation for dots per inch. Monitors and Laser output devices are described as having a resolution off ?? dpi. A monitor is electronically divided into rows of coloured dots. A page from a Laser Output Device is virtually mapped into rows of laser created dots where the laser is either turned on or off thus producing an image.

Drop Cap

A single capital letter, larger than the standard text size, set into a block of text, with one or more lines indented to accommodate the capital.

DTD

Acronym for document type definition. A separate document that contains formal definitions of all of the data elements in a particular type of HTML, SGML, or XML document. By consulting the DTD for a document, a program called a parser can work with the markup codes that document contains.

E-paper

E-paper stands for electronic paper. It is a relatively new term used for the electronic usage of paper or paper-style documents on a PC or on the Internet. Typicaly software using e-paper are the Adobe Acrobat PDF reader or the Elecat electronic product catalog software.

Elecat

Elecat is the eletronic product catalog software bringing product catalogs onto any PC and onto the Internet. Elecat is especially capable of making printed paper catalogs easily available for electronic use. All Elecat vesions have a database and components of pages are linked to records in the database. Most versions of Elecat also offer an order entry system and a permanent update system over the Internet. Elecat is often distributed on CD-ROM together with very large catalog files in CDF and databases but it can, of course, also be distributed over the Internet. Several versions of Elecat are also capable of converting product catalogs to HTML for use in an Internet browser. For details see www.elecat.com.

electronic publishing

The work of providing information in electronic format to in-house users, or to subscribers and other users, via the Internet or some other online service, including database publishing.

ELECTRONIC

A database that can only be accessed via a computer. CD-ROM and online databases are both electronic.

Ellipsis

A punctuation character consisting of three dots, or periods, in a row; indicates that a word or phrase has been omitted.

Em

A unit of measurement exactly as wide and as high as the body size of type being set. It is commonly used to measure spaces, indentions, column sizes, and pages, and can be used for copyfitting and costing. A measurement of area, it is often confused with the `Pica'. In 18-pt type the em is 18 points wide and 18 points high; in 12-pt type it is 12 points square.

Em Dash

Also known as Em Rule. A dash centred on the x-height of characters, one em long, used to indicate a pause in the sentence.

Em Space

A fixed amount of white space exactly one em wide, which will not be 'stretched' for justification purposes as will a space band.

En

A unit of measurement exactly one-half as wide as the body size of type being set. In 18-pt type the en is 9 points wide and 18 points high; in 12-pt type it is 6 points wide and 12 points high.

En Dash

Also known as En rule. A dash centred on the x-height of characters, one en long, used to indicate a range of values.

En Space

A fixed amount of white space exactly one en wide, which will not be `stretched' for justification purposes as will a space band.

Encoding

Refer Character encoding.

ENCYCLOPEDIA

Reference materials that are a compendium of information. Encyclopedias can be used for general information (Encyclopedia Britannica) or specialized information (International Encyclopedia of Statistics).

EPS

Encapsulated PostScript. A graphics file format that can be used with many different computers and printers. EPS files can be imported into most desktop publishing software.

EPS/EPSF

Encapsulated PostScript File. A file format for importing, displaying, printing and exchanging PostScript files which can include object-oriented and bitmapped images. In addition to PostScript data, a low-resolution image (Header Bitmap) is embedded in EPSF files for quick display on a program page. Therefore any manufacturers device or computer program with a PostScript interpreter can send/receive recognisable information to/from any other manufacturers device or computer program (a common Page Description Language).

Expanded

Pertaining to a type face that has characters whose width is greater than their height would generally dictate. Expanded type faces looked `stretched' horizontally.

Expert Set

A font set which can include small capitals, old style figures, ligatures, fractions, subscript and superscript figures.

Extra Leading

A fixed amount of white space added between lines or blocks of type for visual purposes. Also known as Paragraph space.

Face

A unique design of letter, or one of the styles of a family of faces. For example, the italic style of the Times family is a face.

Family

Also known as a Font Family. A collection of faces that were designed and intended to be used together. For example, ITC Garamond family consists of roman and italic styles, as well as regular, semi-bold, bold and ultra bold weights. Each of the styles and weight combinations are call a Face.

Fixed Space

A particular amount of white space, such as an em, en, or thin space, which will not be `stretched' for justification purposes as will a space band.

Flush Left

(ragged right) Pertaining to copy which is aligned on the left margin. 2.(quad left) A code which directs preceding copy to be set flush against the left margin.

Flush Paragraph

A paragraph which has no beginning line indent.

Flush Right

(ragged left) Pertaining to copy which is aligned on the right margin. 2.(quad right) A code which directs preceding copy to be set flush against the right margin.

Folio

A common term for the page numbers of a printed publication.

Font

One complete set of letters, numbers, punctuation marks and special characters, etc., of a given typeface size and design.

Formatted Text

Text which has control codes indicating the fonts bold or italic type margins indents columns tabs headers and footers and other attributes.

FTP

(File Transfer Protocol) -- A very common method of moving files between two Internet sites. FTP is a special way to login to another Internet site for the purposes of retrieving and/or sending files. There are many Internet sites that have established publicly accessible repositories of material that can be obtained using FTP, by logging in using the account name anonymous, thus these sites are called anonymous ftp servers

full-text searching

The capability of searching every word in set of documents or database entries, as opposed to searching only in the title and/or abstract, or in the keywords, headings, or descriptors assigned to each item.

full-text

Refers to database or other electronic resource which provides the entire text of a significant proportion of the works it contains, for example, a periodical database containing the complete text of a significant proportion of the articles indexed, in addition to the citation and abstract of each work.

Galley

A length of phototypeset or electronically output material used for proofing before positioning the material in final camera-ready form.

GIF

(Graphic Interchange Format) GIF (pronounced "gift") is a graphics format that can be displayed on almost all web browsers. It is a common compression format used for transferring graphics files between different computers. Most of the "pictures" you see online are GIF files. They display in 256 colors and have built-in compression. GIF images are the most common form of banner creative.

Glyph

A shape in a font that is used to represent a character code on screen or paper. 2.A letter, but the symbols and shapes in a font like ITC Zapf Dingbats are also glyphs.

Graphic

A line, oval, rectangle, square, or circle created using a software programs drawing tools, or a bit map, object-oriented, or EPS-format document imported into a publication from another publication.

Graphics

The creation, editing, and printing of pictures. Computer graphics has two main methods: vector graphics (stored as a list of vectors) and raster or bitmap graphics (stored as a collection of dots or pixels).

GUI

Graphical User Interface. A non-text based interface between the user and the system software. Added to the operating system with icons, pull-down menus, and other graphic approaches to make it easier for people to operate their computers. Examples: Macintosh, MS Windows, Presentation Manager for OS/2, OSF/Motif and Open Look.

Gutter

The white space which is between columns on a page.

Hairline Rule

The thinnest possible line or rule (often ¼ point).

Halftone, or Halftone Screen

Grey tones of a photograph or piece of art accomplished with a dot pattern.

Handshaking

The exchange of signals back and forth over a communications network to establish a valid connection between two computers.

Hanging Indent

A document style in which the first line of a paragraph is aligned with the left margin, and the remaining lines are all indented an equal amount.

Hanging Punctuation

A style of typography which allows certain punctuation characters to `hang' or extend beyond the left and/or right margins giving a much sharper line to the margins.

Headline

The short lines of emphasised text that introduce detail information in the body text that follows.

Headline font

A font designed to look good at large point sizes for use in headlines.

High Resolution

The high number of dots per square inch required to produce a high-quality image in printing or on a computer display screen. The higher the resolution, the finer the image quality. Good laser or inkjet printers and scanners provide a resolution of 600 dots per inch

Hints

The mathematical instructions added to digital fonts to make them sharp at all sizes and on display devices of different resolutions.

HTML

HyperText Markup Language is a coding language used to make hypertext documents for use on the Web. HTML resembles old-fashioned typesetting code, where a block of text is surrounded by codes that indicate how it should appear. HTML allows text to be "linked" to another file on the Internet

HTTP

HyperText Transfer Protocol, the format of the World Wide Web. When a browser sees "HTTP" at the beginning of an address, it knows that it is viewing a WWW page.

HTTPS

Another protocol for transmitting data securely over the World Wide Web is Secure HTTP (S-HTTP). Whereas SSL creates a secure connection between a client and a server, over which any amount of data can be sent securely, S-HTTP is designed to transmit individual messages securely. SSL and S-HTTP, therefore, can be seen as complementary rather than competing technologies. Both protocols have been approved by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) as a standard.

Hyperlink

This is the clickable link in text or graphics on a web page that takes you to another place on the same page, another page or a whole other site.

Hyphenation

The practice of dividing words by leaving part of the word at the end of one line and continuing it on to the next, with a hyphen at the end of the first part of the word. Many words have their own rules for hyphenation that are not consistent with the general rules of the language, and must be hyphenated according to an exception word dictionary.

Hyphenation & Justification (H&J)

The practice of adjusting blocks of type so that they are both left and right aligned, with hyphenation occurring as appropriate, word spaces adjusted for good fit, and overall appearance satisfactory. Although each are in fact separate processes, they are often used together so that the hyphenation may enhance the results of justification.

Image area

The area of a page inside the margins in which you put the text and graphics. (Objects can extend outside this area.)

Image Compression

File size reduction. Lossless compression enables images to be decompressed without degradation in image quality. Lossy compression sacrifices varying degrees of image detail for greater compression ratios - usually used in Multimedia applications.

Image Editor

A program that can be used to make changes in computer graphics. The program can be used to crop enhance paint and filter scanned images. Adobe Photoshop is an example of an image editing tool. Some page layout programs such as Quark and Pagemaker allow image editing after the image has been imported.

Image Format

A format in which an image can be stored and used. Some formats, such as TIFF and PICT, can be imported into many different programs and transferred between different platforms. GIF and JPEG are formats used for images on HTML pages. There are image conversion tools in some programs (for example, Photoshop), which make it possible to change from one format to another.

Imagesetter

A machine that produces line images, half tone images, and typographic composition on paper or on film.

Impression

A single image transferred by a printing device to one side of a sheet of paper.

Indent

The positioning of text so that a margin of the line or lines appears a fixed distance from the left and/or right margin.

Inheritance

In software development this is the ability (of a programming language) to build new abstractions and objects out of existing ones as an extension or specialization of another class or object. Most object-oriented languages support class-based inheritance, while others such JavaScript only support object-based inheritance. In Elepub and Elestore inheritance is also available for user application data.

Instances

A child object inheriting from a mother object or, in programming, from a class is called an instance.

Intranet

An intranet is a computer network used within one company or organization. Intranets are private networks, usually maintained by corporations for internal communications, which use internet -- usually web -- protocols, software and servers. They are relatively cheap, fast, and reliable networking and information warehouse systems that link offices around the world. They make it is easy for corporate users to communicate with one another, and to access the information resources of the internet.

IP address

Internet Protocal address. Every system connected to the Internet has a unique IP address, which consists of a number in the format A.B.C.D where each of the four sections is a decimal number from 0 to 255. Most people use Domain Names instead and the resolution between Domain Names and IP addresses is handled by the network and the Domain Name Servers. With virtual hosting, a single machine can act like multiple machines (with multiple domain names and IP addresses).

ISDN

(Integrated Digital Services Network) ISDN lines are high-speed dial-up connections to the internet. It is a lot of commotion for a connection roughly four times faster -- 128,000 bits per second -- than a normal phone line.

Italic

Pertaining to type that is a `slanted' version of a type face. It is used primarily for emphasis within text. Most typesetters can produce pseudo-italic (oblique) versions of fonts electronically by skewing the digitised characters.

JPEG

Joint Photographic Experts Group. A format for storing high-quality color and grayscale photographs in bitmap form; also the group that developed the format. JPEG provides lossy compression by segmenting the picture into small blocks which are divided to get the desired ratio; the process is reversed to decompress the image. JPEG uses the JPEG File Interchange Format, or JFIF.

Justification

The process of composing and adjusting line of type by adding space between the words and characters so that the lines are aligned on left and right margins.

Justification Range

The space at the end of a line of type within which the computer will determine the acceptable line breaks before actual justification.

Kern

The process of subtracting space between two characters so that they appear closer together. This is usually done to improve the aesthetic appearance of most words that are set in all capitals especially in large display and headline text lines. 2.The part of a letter which actually overhangs the body of the letter itself, such as the curl at the top of the lower case f in a serif face.

Kerning

Reducing the spacing between certain pairs of letters in a proportional-pitch type to improve the appearance of the line of type. For example, A and V look better next to each other if they are moved closer together than, for example, A and B.

Kerning Pairs

In a computerised typesetting system, certain pairs of characters may be defined with specific kerning values. When type is set, kerning is automatically done between those specified pairs.

LAN

Local Area Network. This network connects computers or workstations allowing users to access the same information simultaneously.

Leading

Pronounced ledding. The distance of the base line of a line of type from the base line of the line below it, measured in points.

Legacy

OF or pertaining to documents, data or hardware that existed prior to a certain time. The designation refers particularly to a change in process or technique that requires translating old data files to a new system.

Letterspacing

The addition of thin spaces between the letters in order to achieve the desired appearance of text, and increase legibility.

Ligature

Two or more letters tied together into a single letter. They are designed to improve the appearance of certain character combinations. The standard ligatures are: ff, fi, fl, ffi, and ffl.

line frequency

The number of lines counted vertically used by a printer to create an image.

Line Length

The width of a line of type, or column, or page (usually in picas and points) as set by typographic commands. The actual type on the line may not fill the entire line length. Also known as measure.

Logo

An emblem, short for logotype. Can be either a unique arrangement of letters, a symbol, or a combination of both.

lpi

Lines Per Inch. A measurement of the resolution of a halftone screen, or of the number of lines a printer prints on a page in each vertical inch.

LZW

A patented lossless data compression scheme that reduces image file size if the data can be compressed without degradation. (common option for .TIF bitmaps)

Mail Merge

A way of using a computer to print customized form letters. Name and address information for each letter to be printed will be inserted at designated merge points.

Manuscript

The original material from which type will be set. May be handwritten, typewritten or on a floppy disk.

Margin

The unprinted space on either side of a block of text. Usually refers to the space between text and the edge of the page, as opposed to space between columns. 2.The position of the leftmost edge of the type image on the page.

Mark up

The written specifications indicating the particulars of typography and measurement, used as guidelines or instructions for implementation of the work.

MB

Megabyte. One million bytes (1,048,576 bytes).

Metadata

Data about data. For example, the title, subject, author, and size of a file constitute metadata about the file.

Middleware

Software that sits between two or more types of software and translates information between them. Middleware can cover a broad spectrum of software and generally sits between an application and an operating system, a network operating system, or a database management system.

Monospaced font

A font in which all characters have uniform widths.

Mother objects

A mother object in Elepub and Elestore is a rather generic data object (collection of data values describing an abstract application data item such as an article or a frame on a page). Mother objects are not directly used, i.e. a mother article is never offered or sold nor placed on a page but it serves as a template for "real" articles inheriting from this mother object. The children automatically receive not only the template (of features and attributes) from its mother but also the values stored inside the mother. Any of these values can be overwritten by the child's own values stored inside the child object. Mother objects can be grouped in a multi-level tree of mother, grandmothers etc. Such as tree organization greatly eases the maintenance of large databases and it reflects the natural dependencies of such data items.

Nested Indent

An indent whose indentation is measured from the margin of the last indent, rather than the absolute margin.

object-oriented

Being object-oriented or object orientedness is a "notion", which can be associated with systems and especially with programming languages. To be object-oriented a programming language must at least:

  • Provide some form of classes and objects.
  • Support inheritance, the ability to build new abstractions and objects out of existing ones.
  • Run-time polymorphism, the ability to bind code components dynamically at run-time (as opposed to static or compile-time binding typically used in most programming languages).

This last criteria is the reason why C can never be object-oriented, and why C++ can is definetely not a pure o-o language. C++ can only be called object-oriented with severe limitations (one can theoretically develop in o-o style in C++, but hardly anybody ever does so because it is very badly supported).

Typical o-o languages today are Java and Smalltalk, the oldest, most mature and purest o-o language in wide use today (not mentioning the many o-o languages of purely academic importance). Basically, Java is much of Smalltalk, in C++ syntax, but with substantial limitations in the features and especially in the development environment.

object repository

A storage for obejcts so that they can be (re-) used by other objects. In the case of Elepub a database containing mother objects used as templates for creating "real" objects on pages such as tables, frames or containers holding frames, tables or other containers.

Oblique

The characteristic of a type face which has been skewed from a digitised character, thus looking like an italic typeface. The angle of skew is either 12° or 15°.

Old Style Figures

A set of numerals which do not line up along the base line of type. Also known as non-aligning figures.

On Demand

On Demand is a method of document creation which streamlines production and distribution through the use of technology. The goal is to decrease waste because of over-ordering or out of date content and a more useful, relevant document resulting from the ability to keep content current and dynamic.

ONLINE

Accessing a remote computer via a terminal.

Open Architecture

Any computer, peripheral, or application design that has published specifications. A published specification lets third parties develop add-on hardware or modules for a computer or copmputer application.

Optical Character Recognition (OCR)

The process in which an electronic device examines printed characters on paper and determines their shapes by detecting patterns of dark and light. Once the scanner or reader has determined the shapes, character recognition methods-pattern matching with stored sets of characters-are used to translate the shapes into computer text.

Orphan

An element of type (such as a word or a line) which leads into a larger block of type, but which has been left by itself at the end of a page or column. For instance, the first line of a paragraph, or a section head. Sometimes erroneously called a widow.

Page Makeup

The process of arranging type and other elements so that they will be output in page format.

Pagination

The process of performing page makeup automatically through a computer program according to page parameters designated by the operator or by a database (where multiple pages fit on to one Printing-Press sheet of paper). 2.The numbering of the pages of a book.

Paint-type Graphic

See Bit map.

Paragraph Indent

An indent at the beginning of the first line of a paragraph.

Paragraph rules

Graphic lines associated with a paragraph that separate blocks of text. Rules are commonly used to separate columns and isolate graphics on a page.

Paste-up

Manual or electronic placement of text, illustration and artwork on a piece of art board or by a computerised page layout program.

PDF

Portable Document Format. Developed by Adobe Systems for `paperless publishing' with Adobe Acrobat software. PDF compresses PostScript type page files for fast display and printing of electronic documents on computer systems running Acrobat software. (Recent innovations allow the accurate output of complex CMYK objects.)

PDL

Page Description Language. A method of encoding page elements (text, graphics, images) for printing. see EPS.

PERIODICAL

A generic term for anything published in a regular or irregular cycle which includes magazines, journals and newspapers.

Phototypesetter

A machine that produces typographic composition photographically on paper or film rather than in relief metal.

Pi Characters

Special characters not normally included in a normal font such as scientific and mathematical characters, foreign accents, Greek letters, etc.

Pica

A unit of measurement used in printing and typesetting equal to 4.21mm and divided into 12 points. Used as a linear measurement.

Point

A unit of measurement used in printing and typesetting equal to 1/12 of a pica.

Point Size

The measurement of type, generally from the top of the highest ascender to the bottom of the lowest descender. Due to variances in type design, the designated point size of a particular font might be somewhat different from the actual measurement

PostScript

A Page Description Language developed by Adobe Systems in the mid-1980's which has become an industry standard. An Adobe trademark. see EPS.

PostScript Level 2 and Level 3

Enhanced versions of PostScript with device-independent colour functions, improved screening and font rendering, built-in compression options, and other improvements.

ppi

pixels per inch. A measure of Bitmap or Monitor resolution.

ppm

Pages per minute. A measurement of printer speed.

Primary Leading

The leading that is used in the general body of text, or in a particular set of lines, as opposed to secondary leading.

PRINT INDEX

Paper index not electronic.

Printer Driver

A software program that supplies information such as printing interface, description of fonts, and features of the installed printer to the system software. Computer programs access this information when printing.

Printer Font

A font stored in the printer's memory, or soft font that is sent (down loaded) to a printer before a document is printed.

Proof

A copy of typeset material used for proofreading, corrections, and alterations.

Proportional Font

A font in which different characters have varying widths. See also Screen Font, Soft Font, TrueType Fonts.

Proportional Spacing

The characteristic of a type face wherein each letter has its own width value. Most typewriters and line printers use only mono-spaced fonts.

Ragged

The characteristic of a body of type whose lines are not equal length, producing an uneven margin on the left, right, or both sides.

Ragged Centre

Pertaining to type which is centred between the left and right margins.

Ragged Left

Pertaining to type which is justified on the right margin and ragged on the left.

Ragged Right

Pertaining to type which is justified on the left margin and ragged on the right.

Raised Initial

A design style in which the first capital letter of a paragraph is set in a large point size and aligned with the base line of the first line of text. Compare with Drop Cap.

Raster Graphics

A method of generating graphics that treats an image as a collection of small, independently controlled dots (pixels) arranged in rows and columns.  Resolution - The fineness of detail attained by a printer or a monitor in producing an image. For printers that form characters from small, closely spaced dots, resolution is measured in dots per inch, or dpi, and ranges from about 125 dpi for low-quality dot-matrix printers to about 600 dpi for some laser and ink-jet printers (typesetting equipment can print at resolutions of over 1,000 dpi). For a video display, the number of pixels is determined by the graphics mode and video adapter, but the size of the display depends on the size and adjustment of the monitor; hence the resolution of a video display is taken as the total number of pixels displayed horizontally and vertically.

REFERENCE

The process of answering questions for library users about research or finding information. Reference also refers to a specific type of book that is found in the Reference collection.

Reverse

The technique of printing white or light-coloured text on a black or dark background for emphasis.

Reverse Leading

The action of a phototypesetter in reversing the imaging film to cause the next line of type to print higher on the page than the previous line.

RIP

Raster Image Processor. Converts Post-Script files to a Raster Image of virtual laser dots used by a specific printer or imagesetter. Image-setter RIPs include a computer chip and hard disk to store screening algorithms, type faces, and other data. The rasterised information is used to turn the Laser light on or off.

River of white

The optical path of white space that sometimes occurs when word space in successive lines of type happen to end up below each other for some distance.

Roman

A classical type style that is upright with serifs and is neither bold nor italic.

Rule

A line of unvarying thickness. Used for forms, charts, graphs and other graphic material.

Run-around

To set type to fit around a picture or another element of the design.Run-in  Referring to a heading or caption which does not stand apart from the text it heads, but acts as the first part of the text.

Runaround Indent

An indent which takes place for a specified number of lines, usually to leave room for an illustration.

Running Head and Foot

A headline or chapter title or other identifying caption at the top of a page. Generally running heads and feet appear on a series of pages and may include folios.

Sans Serif

Describing a type face whose characters do not have serifs.

Scalable Type Face

A font that can be enlarged or reduced to any size.

Screen Font

The font that is displayed on your screen, designed to match the printer font so that documents look the same on screen as they do when printed. See also WYSIWYG.

Script

Type faces designed with connecting characters in imitation of fine handwriting.

Secondary Leading

A separate leading parameter than may be specified by a typesetting operator, to generate a particular amount of leading between paragraphs different from the general leading.

Serif

The tiny strokes at the end of a larger character stroke, used to provide visual balance to the character shape. 2.Describing a type face whose characters have serifs.

Set Solid

Type that has been set without the use of leading.

Set Width

The width of a character, including minimal letterspacing on each side, measured in units.

SGML

Acronym for Standard Generalized Markup Language. An information management standard adopted by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in 1986 as a means of providing platform- and application-independent documents that retain formatting, indexing, and linked information. SGML provides a grammarlike mechanism for users to define the structure of their documents and the tags they will use to denote the structure in individual documents.  Structured Query Language (SQL) - A database sublanguage used in querying, updating, and managing relational databases-the de facto standard for database products.

Simplex Printing

Printing on one side of the page. Use one side of paper.

Skewed Indent

An indent whose value is changed for each line, giving the margin a `slanted' appearance.

Small Caps

Alphabet sets in which a smaller version of a type faces upper case letters are used in place of lower case letters. Traditionally used for letterhead, after drop caps, and for display type purposes.

Soft Font

A font, usually provided by a font vendor, that must be installed on your computer and sent to the printer before text formatted in that font can be printed. Also known as downloadable font.

Space Band

The variable width space between words in justified settings.

Style

One of the variations in appearance, such as italic and bold, that make up the faces in a type family.

STYLE MANUAL

A guide that informs how to format a paper, with regard to margins, footnotes, bibliographies, etc. Ask your instructor which style manual you are to use in each class. Each department prefers a specific style manual to be used.

subject heading

A word or phrase assigned in a bibliographic record to indicate the subject of the work, which serves as an access point in a catalog, index, or database.

Symbol

A category of type in which the characters are special symbols rather than alpha numeric characters.

Tabular figures

Numerals which all have the same width. Used for aligning figures in tabular matter.

Thesaurus

Originally, a book of synonyms in the English language by Peter Mark Roget, first published in 1852. In modern usage, a book of terms, usually arranged alphabetically, which provides a grouping or classification of synonyms, and may also indicate hierarchical and other relationships of meaning, for example, broader terms (BT), narrower terms (NT), and related terms (RT).

Thin Space

A small fixed space equal in width to the period or comma (usually about half of an en space).

TIFF or TIF

Acronym for Tagged Image File Format or Tag Image File Format. A standard file format commonly used for scanning, storage, and interchange of gray-scale graphic images. TIFF may be the only format available for older programs, but most modern programs are able to save images in a variety of other formats, such as GIF or JPEG.

Tracking

The average space between characters in a block of text. Sometimes also referred to a letter spacing.

TrueType

Fonts that are scalable and sometimes generated as bitmaps or soft fonts, depending on the capabilities of the printer. Built into Windows 3.x/Windows95 and Apple's System 7. See also screen font, printer font.

Type 1

The international type standard for digital outlined type, available on almost every computer platform. Originally invented by Adobe Systems.

Type Classification

Grouping type designs related by common characteristics. There are essentially seven type styles: Roman, Italic, Lineale (Sans Serif), Slab Serif, Text, Script and Decorative.

Type Face

A unique design of a set of characters, based on some overall design or desired appearance.

Type Family

A collection of typefaces related in design but differing in character weights and styles.

Type Manager

A software utility which controls display and printing of flexible outline fonts. Examples: Adobe Type Manager, TrueType, and Bitstream Facelift.

Type Series

A number of fonts of the same name and design in a range of sizes.

Type Specification

The formatting applied to type such as: size, leading, font, etc.

Type Style

A collection of type families related by common characteristics. There are essentially seven type styles: Roman, Italic, Sans Serif, Slab Serif, Text, Script and Decorative. See Type Face.

Typographic colour

The apparent blackness of a block of text.

Typography

The art and practice of arranging type and other elements in pleasing ways by using combinations of fonts and layout, and adjusting the type in such a way as to produce the most aesthetic result.

Unit

A subdivision of the em. Its size varies from one type size to another, as does the em. It is a measurement of the width of the character, including a small amount of space on either side. The most common unit is 54 but it is not standard. The more units that a system allocates to measure a character's width, the greater the flexibility in word and letter spacing.

Unjustified

Text which has not yet had line endings determined.

Vector Graphics

Images generated from mathematical descriptions that determine the position, length, and direction in which lines are drawn. Objects are created as collections of lines rather than as patterns of individual dots or pixels. Vectors are used in the output of some graphics programs instead of groups of dots (on paper) or pixels (on screen).

Vertical Justification

The process of adding space between line or paragraphs to achieve alignment of the columns top and bottom.

VML

Acronym for Vector Markup Language. A specification for editable 2-D vector graphics in an HTML or XML document. An application of XML (Extensible Markup Language), VML uses XML tags and Cascading Style Sheets to create and place vector graphics, such as circles and squares, in an XML or HTML document, such as a Web page. These graphics, which are rendered in the native operating system, can include color and are editable in a variety of graphics programs. The specification was submitted to the W3C in 1998 by a variety of computer companies.

VRML

Acronym for Virtual Reality Modeling Language. A scene description language for creating 3-D interactive Web graphics similar to those found in some video games, allowing the user to "move around" within a graphic image and interact with objects. VRML, a subset of Silicon Graphics' Inventor File Format (ASCII), was created by Mark Pesce and Tony Parisi in 1994. VRML files can be created in a text editor, although CAD packages, modeling and animation packages, and VRML authoring software are the tools preferred by most VRML authors. VRML files reside on an HTTP server; links to these files can be embedded in HTML documents, or users can access the VRML files directly.

Weight

The relative darkness of the characters in the various type faces with a type family. Weight is indicated by relative terms such as thin, light, bold, extra bold and black.

White space

The blank area on a page where text and illustrations are not printed. 2.In bookwork, the gap between the body text and the running head and folio.

Widow

A single short line at the top of the page or column which is the end of a sentence or a paragraph. 2.A single word or syllable standing as the last line of a paragraph. Widows of either definition are typographically undesirable.

Width

One of the possible variations of a type face within a type family, such as condensed or extended.

Wildcard

In some databases, a special character may be inserted in the middle of a search term used in a keywords search to retrieve words containing any character, and sometimes no character, in the designated position. This feature can be useful in retrieving irregular plurals and variant spellings of a word. The wildcard symbol varies from one proprietary search software system to another, but can usually be identified by reading the help screen(s).

Windows Character Set

The character set used in Windows and Windows applications. Most TrueType fonts have a set of about 220 characters.

Windows Metafile Format (WMF)

A graphics file format used by Windows to store vector graphics in order to exchange graphics information between applications and to store information between sessions.

Word Space

The space between words, which may be expanded for purposes of justification. 2.To adjust the spaces between words, making them larger than the minimum allowable size.

WYSIWYG

What You See Is What You Get. Refers to the ability of a computer to present an image of a page layout or graphic on its screen that shows how the actual page will look like when it comes out of the printer.

XFDL

Acronym for Extensible Forms Description Language, a document description language introduced and submitted to the World Wide Web Committee in 1998 by the Canadian Internet forms company UWI.Com. XFDL is an XML-based language for describing complex forms, such as legal and government documents. It is designed to allow for interactivity, yet remain consistent with Internet standards.

x-height

The height of the lower case letter excluding any ascenders and descenders. Type faces may be designed with small or large x-heights

XML

Acronym for eXtensible Markup Language, a condensed form of SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language). XML lets Web developers and designers create customized tags that offer greater flexibility in organizing and presenting information than is possible with the older HTML document coding system.

XSL

Acronym for Extensible Stylesheet Language. A language for specifying stylesheets that apply formatting to complex XML data, for presentation in HTML or other formats. The proposal for XSL was submitted to the W3C (World Wide Web Consortium) in 1997. Unlike cascading style sheets (CSS), which map an XML element into a single display object, XSL can map a single XML element to more than one type of display object-for example, both an element in a list and an item in a table. Although XSL and CSS differ, they are complementary, rather than mutually exclusive formatting technologies. CSS has fewer capabilities than XSL, but CSS has been around longer than XSL and as a result has more tools and support.

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